Jesus según su amigo Juan #6

Jesus

Esta es sin duda una e las escenas más conocidas del ministerio de Jesús y las frases “convertir el agua en vino” y “dejar el mejor vino para el final” son parte del lenguaje cotidiano.

 

III. CANÁ DE GALILEA (2:1-12)

Esta es sin duda una e las escenas más conocidas del ministerio de Jesús y las frases “convertir el agua en vino” y “dejar el mejor vino para el final” son parte del lenguaje cotidiano.

Este milagro es el primero que Jesús realiza, la primera “señal” como le llama Juan.

Primero, ¿qué sabía María de Jesús como para pedirle que resolviera el problema de la súbita “emergencia” que podía dejar mal parado al  anfitrión.

Segundo, ¿por qué reaccionó Jesús de esa manera (“ Mujer…¿eso qué tiene que ver conmigo?. Todavía no ha llegado mi hora.”)

Bendiciones…me encanta el Programa …me gustaría argumentara sobre el punto de la conversión del agua en vino…pues muchos creyentes se adhieren a el para justificar el tomar bebidas alcohólicas y muchos lo hacen ya sin temor

 

IV. ¿Creer las señales o “la señal”?  2:13-

Introducción

A. Cambio de tempo: Comienza la acción.

B. Cambio de hogar

2:12 Después de esto Jesús bajó a Capernaúm con su madre, sus hermanos y sus discípulos, y se quedaron allí unos días. 

 

I. Escenario

A. PASCUA

13 Se acercaba la Pascua de los judíos y Jesús subió a Jerusalén.

1. Una de las 5 fiestas importantes y una de las 3 obligatorias. ¿La más importante? Asistencia multitudinaria e internacional.

2. Origen histórico

3. Semana de celebración que culminaba con el sacrificio de expiación.

John mentions three Passovers in his gospel.cf. 2:13; 6:4; 11:55f. John is particularly concerned with the annual Jewish feasts in his record of Jesus’ ministry. He uses the meaning of these feasts to throw into relief the claims Jesus makes and the fulfillment he brings to the promise inherent in Judaism. The message of John.

B. TEMPLO

14 Y encontró en el Templo a los vendedores de bueyes, ovejas y palomas, y a los cambistas en sus puestos. 

1. Patio del templo (Patio de los gentiles)

But V. Epstein indicated that because of a conflict between merchants and the Sanhedrin, Caiaphas permitted supporting merchants to set up markets in the very precincts of the temple (“The Historicity of the Gospel Account of the Cleansing of the Temple,” ZNW 55 [1964]: 42–58).

In 19 B.C.E. Herod the Great doubled the size of the Temple Mount. He added large areas to the north, west, and south of the pre-Herodian complex. Above the southern wall of the Temple Mount, he built a huge colonnaded structure called the Royal Stoa (galería, pórtico). When compared with others in the Roman Empire, it is clear that this edifice served as a sacred marketplace. Normally the changing of money and buying of sacrificial animals took place in this building.

2. Necesidades logísticas

The temple court (hieron) apparently had been turned over to the sale of animals and birds used in sacrifice. The pigeons or doves, the sin offering of the poor (Lev 5:7), is mentioned in the temple cleansing of Mark (11:15) and Matthew (21:12) as well as here, but the presence of the more expensive animals is noted only here. The usual sin offering was a lamb or goat (Lev 5:6). Oxen are mentioned specifically in connection with the burnt offerings of Numbers 7.

3. Monedas

 For, all Jews and proselytes—women, slaves, and minors excepted—had to pay the annual Temple-tribute of half a shekel, according to the ‘sacred’ standard, equal to a common Galilean shekel (two denars)…

 Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol. 1 (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896), 367.

4. Cambistas

As far as the money changers (2:14) are concerned, each Israelite who was part of the annual poll was expected to provide a half-shekel tax/offering to the temple (Exod 30:13). Moreover, those who came from a distance instead of bringing offerings of animals or birds could bring money and purchase them from the temple staff, a practice that developed out of the alternative pattern provided in Deut 14:25. The payments of these items, however, could not be made in foreign currencies like Roman denarii, which contained pagan symbols and the images of emperors. Therefore the money had to be exchanged for appropriate temple currency. The result was that the temple also became a major money exchange or bank.

Gerald L. Borchert, John 1–11, vol. 25A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996), 163.

Comisión de 10% aprox.

La inspección de un animal (apto para el sacrificio podría haber costado 1-2 denarios. Esto para los animales traídos o comprados en el templo (en el M Olivos había 4 establecimientos)

MESAS

The most familiar table of the artisan or trader is that of the moneychangers (from Plat. Ap., 17c). While other salesmen often displayed their wares on the ground, these put their coins on a table and thus came to be called τραπεζῖται, “table-men,” i.e., money-changers, bankers

Plat. Plato, of Athens (428/7–348/7 b.c.), ed. J. Burnet, 1905.

Ap. Apologia. [Plato, of Athens]

 Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, y Gerhard Friedrich, eds., Theological dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964–), 211.

5. Vendedores

6. Ambiente

The scene described in verse 14 is fully in keeping with Old Testament laws demanding animal sacrifice, and their stress on the awesome holiness of God to whom gifts should be made in appropriately ‘holy’ coinage;20 hence the animal-sellers and the money-changers. While there is little doubt that at least some of the trading was corrupt, it is the cleansing recorded in the other gospels which more acutely raises that issue (cf. ‘a den of robbers’, Mk. 11:17). Here

20 The actual temple tax was paid in Tyrian shekels, used because of the high purity of their silver. The money changers charged a percentage for their service.

The message of John.

II. Acción

15 Haciendo un látigo con cuerdas, echó a todos fuera del Templo, con las ovejas y los bueyes; desparramó el dinero de los cambistas y les volcó las mesas; 16 y dijo a los que vendían palomas: «Quiten esto de aquí.”

A. Mercado

http://www.biblehistory.net/newsletter/annas.htm

Confirmation that the Temple was being turned into a marketplace during the time of Jesus can be found in some early Jewish writings. First of all, there is a record of the common practice of setting up money changers in the temple area during Passover. The Talmud states the following:

   “Beginning on the 1st of Adar ( the month before Passover), a proclamation was made to the people that they should prepare the Shekalim . . . On the 15th day of Adar, moneychangers were sent out to collect the Half-Shekel for its donation . . . On the 25th day of Adar, moneychangers were installed in the Temple itself to help in the collecting the Half-Shekel donation” Megillah 29a-b

 A matter of fact, Jewish history records that these High priests who walked the temple courts during the first century, were despised by the majority of the people for their brutality and hunger for money. So much so that there is a strong condemnation of these men in the Talmud.

B. Corrupción

it was also liable to gross abuses. But was there about the time of Christ anything to make it specially obnoxious and unpopular? The priesthood must always have derived considerable profit from it—of course, not the ordinary priests, who came up in their ‘orders’ to minister in the Temple, but the permanent priestly officials, the resident leaders of the priesthood, and especially the High-Priestly family.

 Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol. 1 (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896), 370–371.

 

C. Dos preguntas

¿Jesús amoroso?

¿Dónde estaban los discípulos?

E. Significado

No hagan de la casa de mi Padre [casa de oración en sinópticos] una casa de mercado.» 17 Sus discípulos se acordaron de que estaba escrito: El celo por tu casa me devorará (Sal 69:10).

A. Pregunta

18 Los judíos entonces replicaron diciéndole: «Qué signo nos muestras para obrar así?»

– Salmos 69:10 (verlo completo)

8 Pues por ti soporto el insulto, 

la vergüenza cubre mi semblante; 

9 a mis hermanos resulto un extraño, 

un desconocido a los hijos de mi madre; 

10 pues el celo por tu Casa me devora, 

y si te insultan sufro el insulto.

¿Fue un acto de provocación o un gesto de indignación?

– ¿nos indignamos?

2:18 The reaction of “the Jews” (probably here the keepers of order) was to demand a “sign.” The use of the term “sign” here in this context of confrontation or demand by the Jews has a slightly different focus from the sign for believers as in 2:11. The Jewish challenge was for Proof of either Jesus’ right to make a particular statement (e.g., 6:30) or to do a particular act (e.g., 2:18). The demand for such a sign was in effect the demand for Jesus to justify himself in their eyes. In such contexts in John, Jesus refused the requests. He readily argued with the Jews, but he refused to become a magician performing signs for their benefit.

 Gerald L. Borchert, John 1–11, vol. 25A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996), 165.

B. Contestación

19 Jesús les respondió: «Destruyan este santuario y en tres días lo levantaré.» 20 Los judíos le contestaron: «Cuarenta y seis años se ha tardado en construir este santuario, ¿y tú lo vas a levantar en tres días?»

C. ¿Comprensión?

Indeed, misunderstanding of such a prediction statement appears in the confused trial testimony and in the mocking episodes at the cross in both Matthew (26:61; 27:40) and Mark (14:58; 15:29). In both of those scenes and in the antagonistic outcry against Stephen in Acts 6:14 the enemies falsely argued that Jesus made a threat that he would destroy the Jewish temple. This Johannine story provides a reasonable context for the accusation there that is not indicated in the other Gospels.

 Gerald L. Borchert, John 1–11, vol. 25A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996), 165–166.

D. Explicación

21 Pero él hablaba del santuario de su cuerpo. 22 Cuando fue levantado, pues, de entre los muertos, se acordaron sus discípulos de que había dicho eso, y creyeron en la Escritura y en las palabras que había dicho Jesús.

SALMO 16:10?

What specific text of Scripture fulfillment is meant here, however, is not totally clear, but the text most frequently considered to be relevant at this point is Ps 69:9. The text that reflects victory over Sheol (Ps 16:10) may also have been in mind.

 Gerald L. Borchert, John 1–11, vol. 25A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1996), 166–167.

E. SEÑAL, SEÑALES Y LA MAYOR DE TODAS

– Señales en Juan

– La señal del templo

– La señal del cuerpo

La “señales” en Juan

30 Jesús hizo muchas otras señales milagrosas en presencia de sus discípulos, las cuales no están registradas en este libro. 31 Pero éstas se han escrito para que ustedes crean que Jesús es el Cristo, el Hijo de Dios, y para que al creer en su nombre tengan vida. Jn 20.30–21.1.

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